Stuart Hall (2007) describes three different approaches to the idea of representation.
1) ‘Reflective’ Approach – meaning is held in an object or the world; creation of a narrative by an individual ‘reflects‘ that meaning.
2) ‘Intentional’ Approach – meaning is under the control of the individual creating the narrative; the individual projects meaning onto objects and the world
3) ‘Constructionist’ Approach – meaning does not reside with the object or the individual; meaning is socially constructed through representational systems; the representational systems allow meaning to occur, rather than it occurring via the object or the individual
from ‘The work of representation’ in Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (1997)