People / Theory

Robert Cawdrey

Robert Cawdrey (ca. 1538 – after 1604):

Robert Cawdrey did not go to college, but became a school teacher in Oakham, Rutland, in 1563.

In 1565, Cawdrey was ordained as a deacon, and 22 October 1571 he was made rector of South Luffenham. However, Cawdrey was sympathetic to Puritan teachings, and got in trouble with the Church authorities. In 1576 he was chastised for not reading the approved texts in his sermons, and in 1578 he performed a marriage even though he was not authorized to do so, and was briefly suspended. His suspension lasted only a few months but, in 1586, he was again in trouble for violating the rules and was called before his bishop, Richard Howland. He had powerful friends who tried to defend him, but he lost his rectory and had to return to teaching to support himself.

With the assistance of his son Thomas Cawdrey (1575–1640), who was a school teacher in London, Robert Cawdrey decided to create an instructional text – the Table Alphabeticall, which appeared in 1604 when Cawdrey was living in Coventry. This was the first English dictionary.

As many new words were entering the English language in the 16th century, Cawdrey became concerned that people would become confused. Cawdrey worried that the wealthy were adopting foreign words and phrases, and wrote that “they forget altogether their mothers language, so that if some of their mothers were alive, they were not able to tell or understand what they say.” He also described how “far journied gentlemen” learn new words while in foreign lands, and then “pouder their talke with over-sea language.”

The full name of his famous dictionary is:

A table alphabeticall conteyning and teaching the true writing, and understanding of hard vsuall English wordes, borrowed from the Hebrew, Greeke, Latine, or French, &c. With the interpretation thereof by plaine English words, gathered for the benefit & helpe of ladies, gentlewomen, or any other unskilfull persons. Whereby they may the more easilie and better vnderstand many hard English wordes, vvhich they shall heare or read in scriptures, sermons, or elswhere, and also be made able to vse the same aptly themselues.


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